There are many words and phrases used in academic texts to emphasize that something is definitely true.
There are also words and phrases used in academic writing to signal doubt or uncertainty about something.
Pay attention to these words and phrases while you read - they can help you recognize the writer's position and how sure - or unsure - he is about something.
Recognizing The Writer's Position
Water authorities said yesterday that the water shortage is without a doubt due to a decrease in annual rainfall (sentence 1). However, it can be argued that if the government had adopted an effective water conservation plan last year, the problem could have been prevented (sentence 2). It seems clear that whatever the reason, measures should be taken immediately to deal with the current crisis (sentence 3).
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